After the death of Osama bin Laden on May 2, 2011, many worried that al-Qaeda would try to carry out another large-scale attack against the United States as an act of revenge. Indeed since bin Laden’s death, at least nine publicly known Islamist-inspired terror plots against the United States have been foiled, bringing the total number of foiled plots since 9/11 to at least 50.
Ultimately, none of the plots foiled since bin Laden’s death proved to be of the scale that many feared, with the vast majority of the plots lacking major international connections. Instead, many of these plots could be categorized as homegrown terror plots—planned by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized predominately in the United States.
Combating this continued threat of homegrown terrorism requires not only continued reliance on existing counterterrorism and intelligence tools, such as the PATRIOT Act, but also enhancing cooperation among federal, state, and local authorities as well as mutual trust and partnerships with Muslim communities throughout the United States. Likewise, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Congress must continue to plug gaps to halt terrorist travel, and create a lawful detainment framework for the incapacitation and interrogation of suspected terrorists.
Continued Threat of Homegrown Terrorism
Since 9/11, terrorist networks have been dismantled, training camps have been dispersed, and the terrorist leadership largely decimated. Internationally, al-Qaeda has become more decentralized, leading to a greater dependence on its affiliates and allies. At the same time, since increased domestic security has made it harder for terrorists to plan and carry out attacks, terrorists must increase their baseline skills and capabilities needed for a successful attack in the United States.
With the global operating environment for terrorist networks having become increasingly hostile, homegrown terrorism has become more appealing to al-Qaeda and other terrorist networks. Homegrown terrorist actors can often bridge the divide between the United States and the other regions of the world in which terrorist networks operate, frequently possessing the cultural and linguistic skills to easily move between the two. It is this “duality” for instance, that served Najibullah Zazi in his attempt to bomb the New York City subway system, with Zazi “being able to operate with facility in environments as starkly different as New York and Peshawar.”
The value for terrorist networks also often lies in the ability of homegrown terrorists to more easily travel back and forth and work within the United States without raising suspicion. Of course, it is also these same abilities that can make it more challenging for U.S. intelligence and law enforcement to detect homegrown terrorist plots. Similarly, difficulties in detecting attempted homegrown attacks are also present in the fact that homegrown terror plots tend to involve significantly fewer actors and connections to terrorist networks at home and abroad. The frequency of lone wolf actors, radicalized independent of direct connections to terrorist networks either through the Internet or social circles, can further elevate these challenges.
Yet, lacking the support of broader terrorist networks, violent extremists may lack a profound understanding of such specialized skills as bomb making, as well as financing, support networks, and training, causing them to be reluctant or even unable to carry out a large-scale, highly destructive attack independently. This same lack of training and resources may also open up homegrown terror plots for detection by U.S. intelligence and law enforcement by affording more room for error on the part of the terrorist. Ultimately, while some signals of homegrown terror plots have gone unnoticed—most notably in the cases of Major Nidal Hasan’s 2009 deadly attack on Fort Hood, the near-successful attempts in 2009 of Christmas Day bomber Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, and in 2010 of Times Square bomber Faisal Shahzad—the vast majority of attempted attacks against the United States have been thwarted in their early stages through the concerted efforts of U.S. law enforcement and intelligence.
For the individual homegrown terrorist, personal motives may vary greatly. It could be a desire for collective revenge against the U.S. for the purported “war on Islam,” poverty or social alienation, or brainwashing. There is no one path to radicalization. As DHS’s Office of Intelligence and Analysis has indicated, motives and paths to radicalization can vary significantly depending on one’s ideology and religious beliefs, geographic location, or socioeconomic condition. Nevertheless, trends do seem to exist among those attempted homegrown terror plots thwarted since 9/11, most significantly a seeming aversion to suicide or martyrdom.
50 Plots Foiled Since 9/11
Compiled by The Heritage Foundation since 2007, the following list outlines those publicly known terrorist plots against the U.S. that have been foiled since 9/11. Based on Heritage’s research, at least 50 publicly known Islamist-inspired terror plots targeting the United States have been foiled since 9/11. Of these, at least 42 could be considered homegrown terror plots. While three of the 50 known plots were foiled by luck or the quick action of the American public, the remaining 47 were thwarted due to the concerted efforts of intelligence and law enforcement.
1. Richard Reid—December 2001. A British citizen and self-professed follower of Osama bin Laden who trained in Afghanistan, Richard Reid hid explosives inside his shoes before boarding a flight from Paris to Miami on which he attempted to light the fuse with a match. Reid was caught in the act and apprehended aboard the plane by passengers and flight attendants. FBI officials took Reid into custody after the plane made an emergency landing at Boston’s Logan International Airport.
In 2003, Reid was found guilty on charges of terrorism, and a U.S. federal court sentenced him to life in prison. He is currently incarcerated at a federal maximum-security prison in Colorado.
Saajid Badat, a supporter to Reid, has been sentenced to 13 years in jail for planning to blow up a passenger plane. The 26-year-old, a religious teacher from Gloucester, England, was sentenced after he admitted conspiring with fellow Briton Reid. Badat pled guilty in February 2005 to the plot to blow up the transatlantic flight on its way to the U.S. in 2001.
2. Jose Padilla—May 2002. U.S. officials arrested Jose Padilla in May 2002 at Chicago’s O’Hare airport as he returned to the United States from Pakistan, where he met with 9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and received al-Qaeda training and instructions. Upon his arrest, he was initially charged as an enemy combatant, and for planning to use a dirty bomb (an explosive laced with radioactive material) in an attack in the U.S.
Along with Padilla, Adham Amin Hassoun and Kifah Wael Jayyousi were convicted in August 2007 of terrorism conspiracy and material support. It was found that the men supported cells that sent recruits, money, and supplies to Islamic extremists worldwide, including al-Qaeda members. Hassoun was the recruiter and Jayyousi served as a financier and propagandist in the cell. Before his conviction, Padilla had brought a case against the federal government claiming that he had been denied the right of habeas corpus (the right of an individual to petition his unlawful imprisonment). In a five-to-four decision, the U.S. Supreme Court found that the case against him had been filed improperly. In 2005, the government indicted Padilla for conspiring against the U.S. with Islamic terrorist groups.
In August 2007, Padilla was found guilty by a civilian jury after a three-month trial. He was later sentenced by the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida to 17 years and four months in prison. In September 2011, an appellate court ruling deemed Padilla’s original sentence to be too lenient. Padilla is being held at the same penitentiary as Richard Reid and is awaiting resentencing.
3. Lackawanna Six—September 2002. When the FBI arrested Sahim Alwan, Yahya Goba, Yasein Taher, Faysal Galab, Shafal Mosed, and Mukhtar al-Bakri in Upstate New York, the press dubbed them the “Lackawanna Six,” the “Buffalo Six,” and the “Buffalo Cell.” Five of the six had been born and raised in Lackawanna, New York. All six are American citizens of Yemeni descent, and stated that they were going to Pakistan to attend a religious camp, but attended an al-Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan instead. The six men pled guilty in 2003 to providing support to al-Qaeda. Goba and al-Bakri were sentenced to 10 years in prison, Taher and Mosed to eight years, Alwan to nine and a half years, and Galab to seven years. Goba’s sentence was later reduced to nine years after he, Alwan, and Taher testified at a Guantanamo Bay military tribunal in the case against Osama bin Laden’s chief propagandist, Ali Hamza al-Bahlul.
Recent reports indicate that Jaber Elbaneh, one of the FBI’s most wanted and often considered to be a seventh member of the Lackawanna cell, has been captured in Yemen. It remains to be seen whether he will be tried in the U.S., since the U.S. does not have an extradition treaty with Yemen.
4. Uzair and Saifullah Paracha—March 2003. Uzair Paracha, a Pakistani citizen with permanent residency status in the U.S., was arrested in March 2003 and charged with five counts of providing material and financial support to al-Qaeda. Uzair attempted to help another Pakistani, Majid Khan, an al-Qaeda operative, gain access to the United States via immigration fraud. Khan is said to have been in contact with 9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheik Mohammed and planned to bomb underground storage tanks at Maryland gas stations. Uzair was convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison.
Saifullah Paracha, Uzair’s father, a 64-year-old citizen of Pakistan and resident alien of the U.S., is currently being held at Guantánamo Bay awaiting trial. Paracha was arrested in Bangkok, Thailand, in July 8, 2003, through the efforts of the FBI and information provided by his son. He is believed to have had close ties to Khalid Sheik Mohammed, and Mohammed’s nephew Ammar al-Baluchi. Saifullah is said to have used his international business connections to help al-Qaeda procure chemical and biological explosives and assist in their shipment to the U.S., along with the shipment of ready-made explosives.
5. Iyman Faris—May 2003. Iyman Faris is a naturalized U.S. citizen, originally from Kashmir, who was living in Columbus, Ohio. He was arrested for conspiring to use blowtorches to collapse the Brooklyn Bridge, a plot devised after meetings with al-Qaeda leadership, including Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. The New York City Police Department learned of the plot and increased police surveillance around the bridge. Faced with the additional security, Faris and his superiors called off the attack.
Faris pled guilty to conspiracy and providing material support to al-Qaeda and was later sentenced in federal district court to 20 years in prison, the maximum allowed under his plea agreement.
6. Ahmed Omar Abu Ali—June 2003. Ahmed Omar Abu Ali is an American citizen of Jordanian descent who was arrested in Saudi Arabia on charges that he conspired to kill President George W. Bush, hijack airplanes, and provide support to al-Qaeda. He was arrested while attending Medina University, where he had joined an al-Qaeda cell. His plans, according to authorities, were to kill President Bush and then establish an al-Qaeda cell in the United States, with himself as the head. He was convicted by an American court on November 22, 2005, and sentenced to life in prison on July 27, 2009, overturning a 2006 sentence of 30 years that was ruled to be too lenient.
7. Virginia Jihad Network—June 2003. Eleven men were arrested in Alexandria, Virginia, for weapons counts and for violating the Neutrality Acts, which prohibit U.S. citizens and residents from attacking countries with which the United States is at peace. Four of the 11 men pled guilty. Upon further investigation, the remaining seven were indicted on additional charges of conspiring to support terrorist organizations. They were found to have connections with al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, a terrorist organization that targets the Indian government. The authorities stated that the Virginia men had used paintball games to train and prepare for battle. The group had also acquired surveillance and night vision equipment and wireless video cameras. Two more men were later indicted in the plot: Ali al-Timimi, the group’s spiritual leader, and Ali Asad Chandia.
Ali al-Timimi was found guilty of soliciting individuals to assault the United States and was sentenced to life in prison. Ali Asad Chandia received 15 years for supporting Lashkar-e-Tayyiba. Randall Todd Royer, Ibrahim al-Hamdi, Yong Ki Kwon, Khwaja Mahmood Hasan, Muhammed Aatique, and Donald T. Surratt pled guilty and were sentenced to prison terms ranging from three years and 10 months to 20 years. Masoud Khan, Seifullah Chapman, and Hammad Abdur-Raheem were found guilty and later sentenced to prison terms ranging from 52 months to life. Both Caliph Basha Ibn Abdur-Raheem and Sabri Benkhala were acquitted at trial.
8. Nuradin M. Abdi—November 2003. Nuradin M. Abdi, a Somali citizen living in Columbus, Ohio, was arrested and charged in a plot to bomb a local shopping mall. Abdi was an associate of convicted terrorists Christopher Paul and Iyman Faris and admitted to conspiring with the two to provide material support to terrorists. Following his arrest, Abdi admitted to traveling overseas to seek admittance to terrorist training camps, as well as meeting with a Somali warlord associated with Islamists.
Abdi has since pled guilty to conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists, one of the four counts for which he was indicted. He was subsequently sentenced to 10 years in jail per the terms of a plea agreement.
9. Dhiren Barot—August 2004. Seven members of a terrorist cell led by Dhiren Barot were arrested for plotting to attack the New York Stock Exchange and other financial institutions in New York, Washington, D.C., and Newark, New Jersey. They were later accused of planning attacks in England. The plots included a “memorable black day of terror” that would have included detonating a dirty bomb. A July 2004 police raid on Barot’s house in Pakistan yielded a number of incriminating files on a laptop computer, including instructions for building car bombs.
Barot pled guilty and was convicted in the United Kingdom for conspiracy to commit mass murder and sentenced to 40 years. However, in May 2007, his sentence was reduced to 30 years. His seven co-conspirators were sentenced to terms ranging from 15 to 26 years on related charges of conspiracy to commit murder and conspiracy to cause explosion.
10. James Elshafay and Shahawar Matin Siraj—August 2004. James Elshafay and Shahawar Matin Siraj, both reportedly self-radicalized, were arrested for plotting to bomb a subway station near Madison Square Garden in New York City before the Republican National Convention. An undercover detective from the New York City Police Department’s Intelligence Division infiltrated the group, providing information to authorities, and later testified against Elshafay and Siraj.
Siraj was convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison. Elshafay, a U.S. citizen, pled guilty and received a lighter, five-year sentence for testifying against his co-conspirator.
11. Yassin Aref and Mohammad Hossain—August 2004. Two leaders of a mosque in Albany, New York, were charged with plotting to purchase a shoulder-fired grenade launcher to assassinate a Pakistani diplomat. An investigation by the FBI, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, and local police contributed to the arrest. With the help of an informant, the FBI set up a sting that lured Mohammad Hossain into a fake terrorist conspiracy. Hossain brought Yassin Aref, a Kurdish refugee, as a witness. The informant offered details of a fake terrorist plot, claiming that he needed the missiles to murder a Pakistani diplomat in New York City. Both Aref and Hossain agreed to help.
Aref and Hossain were found guilty of money laundering and conspiracy to conceal material support for terrorism and were sentenced to 15 years in prison.
12. Hamid Hayat—June 2005. Hamid Hayat, a Pakistani immigrant, was arrested in Lodi, California, after allegedly lying to the FBI about his attendance at an Islamic terrorist training camp in Pakistan.
Hamid was found guilty of providing himself as “material support” to terrorists and three counts of providing false statements to the FBI. In interviews with the FBI, he stated (correctly) that he specifically requested to come to the United States after receiving training in order to carry out jihad. He was sentenced to 24 years in prison.
13. Levar Haley Washington, Gregory Vernon Patterson, Hammad Riaz Samana, and Kevin James—August 2005. The members of the group were arrested in Los Angeles and charged with conspiring to attack National Guard facilities, synagogues, and other targets in the Los Angeles area. Kevin James allegedly founded Jamiyyat ul-Islam Is-Saheeh (JIS), a radical Islamic prison group, and converted Levar Washington and others to the group’s mission. The JIS allegedly planned to finance its operations by robbing gas stations. After Washington and Patterson were arrested for robbery, police and federal agents began a terrorist investigation, and a search of Washington’s apartment revealed a target list.
James and Washington pled guilty in December 2007. James was sentenced to 16 years in prison and Washington to 22 years. Patterson received 151 months, while Samana was found unfit to stand trial and was initially detained in a federal prison mental facility. He was later sentenced to 70 months in jail.
14. Michael C. Reynolds—December 2005. Michael C. Reynolds was arrested by the FBI and charged with involvement in a plot to blow up a Wyoming natural gas refinery; the Transcontinental Pipeline, a natural-gas pipeline from the Gulf Coast to New York and New Jersey; and a Standard Oil refinery in New Jersey. He was arrested while trying to pick up a $40,000 payment for planning the attack. Shannen Rossmiller, his purported contact, was a Montana judge and private citizen working with the FBI. Rossmiller posed as a jihadist, tricking Reynolds into revealing his plan. The FBI later found explosives in a storage locker in Reynolds’s hometown of Wilkes–Barre, Pennsylvania. Reynolds claimed that he was doing much the same as Rossmiller, and was working as a private citizen to find terrorists.
Reynolds was convicted of providing material support to terrorists, soliciting a crime of violence, unlawful distribution of explosives, and unlawful possession of a hand grenade. He was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
15. Mohammad Zaki Amawi, Marwan Othman El-Hindi, and Zand Wassim Mazloum—February 2006. Amawi, El-Hindi, and Mazloum were arrested in Toledo, Ohio, for conspiring to kill people outside the United States, including U.S. Armed Forces personnel serving in Iraq. The men also conspired to train and arm for a violent jihad against the United States, both domestically and abroad. Training involved use of materials including those found on secure and exclusive jihadist websites, downloaded and copied training videos, and materials for jihad training sessions. The men also were found to have provided material support to terrorist organizations and to have verbally threatened attacks on President George W. Bush. The investigation was begun with the help of an informant who was approached to help train the group.
In June 2008, the three men were convicted of conspiring to commit acts of terrorism against Americans overseas, including U.S. military personnel in Iraq, and other terrorism-related violations. Amawi was sentenced to 20 years, El-Hindi to 13 years, and Mazloum to approximately eight years.
16. Syed Haris Ahmed and Ehsanul Islam Sadequee—April 2006. Ahmed and Sadequee, from Atlanta, Georgia, were accused of conspiracy, having discussed terrorist targets with alleged terrorist organizations. They allegedly met with Islamic extremists in the U.S. and gathered video surveillance of potential targets in the Washington, D.C., area, including the U.S. Capitol and the World Bank headquarters, and sent the videos to a London Islamist group. Ahmed is said also to have traveled to Pakistan with the goal of joining Lashkar-e-Tayyiba.
Both men were indicted for providing material support to terrorist organizations and pled not guilty. In June 2009, a federal district judge found Ahmed “guilty of conspiring to provide material support to terrorists here and overseas.” Ahmed was subsequently sentenced to 13 years in jail. Sadequee was also found guilty and sentenced to 17 years.
17. Narseal Batiste, Patrick Abraham, Stanley Grant Phanor, Naudimar Herrera, Burson Augustin, Lyglenson Lemorin, and Rotschild Augustine—June 2006. Seven men were arrested in Miami and Atlanta for plotting to blow up the Sears Tower in Chicago, FBI offices, and other government buildings around the country. The arrests resulted from an investigation involving an FBI informant. Allegedly, Batiste was the leader of the group and first suggested attacking the Sears Tower in December 2005.
All of the suspects pled not guilty. On December 13, 2007, Lemorin was acquitted of all charges, but the jury failed to reach a verdict on the other six. The second trial ended in a mistrial in April 2008. In the third trial, the jury convicted five of the men on multiple conspiracy charges and acquitted Herrera on all counts. On November 20, 2009, the five were sentenced to prison terms ranging from six to 13.5 years, with Batiste receiving the longest sentence.
18. Assem Hammoud—July 2006. Conducting online surveillance of chat rooms, the FBI discovered a plot to attack underground transit links between New York City and New Jersey. Eight suspects, including Assem Hammoud, an al-Qaeda loyalist living in Lebanon, were arrested for plotting to bomb New York City train tunnels. Hammoud, a self-proclaimed operative for al-Qaeda, admitted to the plot. He was held by Lebanese authorities but was not extradited because the U.S. does not have an extradition treaty with Lebanon. In June 2008, Lebanese authorities released him on bail. In February 2012, Hammoud was convicted in a Lebanese court. He was sentenced to two years in prison, which he had already served.
19. Liquid Explosives Plot—August 2006. British law enforcement stopped a terrorist plot to blow up 10 U.S.-bound commercial airliners with liquid explosives. Twenty-four suspects were arrested in the London area. The style of the plot raised speculation that al-Qaeda was behind it, but no concrete evidence has established a link.
The United Kingdom initially indicted 15 of the 24 arrested individuals on charges ranging from conspiring to commit murder to planning to commit terrorist acts. Eventually, in April 2008, only eight men were brought to trial. In September, the jury found none of the defendants guilty of conspiring to target aircraft, but three guilty of conspiracy to commit murder. The jury was unable to reach verdicts on four of the men. One man was found not guilty on all counts.
20. Derrick Shareef—December 2006. Derrick Shareef was arrested on charges of planning to set off hand grenades in a shopping mall outside Chicago. Shareef reportedly acted alone and was arrested after meeting with an undercover Joint Terrorism Task Force agent. FBI reports indicated that the mall was one of several potential targets, including courthouses, city halls, and government facilities. Shareef, however, settled on attacking a mall in the days immediately preceding Christmas because he believed it would cause the greatest amount of chaos and damage. Shareef was also found to have connections to convicted terrorist Hassan Agujihaad, who was charged with attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction and later sentenced to 35 years in prison.
21. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed—March 2007. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, captured in Pakistan in 2003, was involved in a number of terrorist plots and is one of the most senior bin Laden operatives ever captured. He is being held at the U.S. military detention facility in Guantanamo Bay. In March 2007, Mohammed admitted to helping plan, organize, and run the 9/11 attacks. He also claimed responsibility for planning the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center and the 2002 bombings of nightclubs in Bali and a Kenyan hotel. He has stated that he was involved in the decapitation of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl and took responsibility for helping to plan the failed shoe-bomb attack by Richard Reid, along with plots to attack Heathrow Airport, Canary Wharf, Big Ben, various targets in Israel, the Panama Canal, Los Angeles, Chicago, the Empire State building, and U.S. nuclear power stations. He had also plotted to assassinate Pope John Paul II and former President Bill Clinton.
In December 2008, Mohammed and his four co-defendants (Ramzi Binalshibh, Mustafa Ahmad al-Hawsawi, Ali Abd al-Aziz Ali, and Walid Bin Attash) told the military tribunal judge that they wanted to confess and pleaded guilty to all charges. The judge has approved the guilty plea of Mohammed and two co-defendants but has required mental competency hearings before allowing the other two conspirators to plead guilty. In November 2009, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced that Mohammed would be relocated to the United States to face a civilian trial in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. That decision has now been reversed and the Administration announced that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and the other Guantanamo Bay detainees would be prosecuted in military tribunals at Guantanamo. The date for the arraignment of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and his co-defendants has been set for May 5, 2012, beginning the long-awaited legal proceedings for the five men.
22. Fort Dix Plot—May 2007. Six men were arrested in a plot to attack Fort Dix, a U.S. Army post in New Jersey. The plan involved using assault rifles and grenades to attack and kill U.S. soldiers. Five of the alleged conspirators had conducted training missions in the nearby Pocono Mountains. The sixth helped to obtain weapons. The arrests were made after a 16-month FBI operation that included infiltrating the group. The investigation began after a store clerk alerted authorities after discovering a video file of the group firing weapons and calling for jihad. The group has no known direct connections to any international terrorist organization.
In December 2008, five of the men were found guilty on conspiracy charges but were acquitted of charges of attempted murder. Four were also convicted on weapons charges. The five men received sentences ranging from 33 years to life plus 30 years. The sixth co-defendant pled guilty to aiding and abetting the others in illegal possession of weapons and was sentenced to 20 months in jail.
23. JFK Airport Plot—June 2007. Four men plotted to blow up “aviation fuel tanks and pipelines at the John F. Kennedy International Airport” in New York City. They believed that such an attack would cause “greater destruction than in the Sept. 11 attacks.” Authorities stated that the attack “could have caused significant financial and psychological damage, but not major loss of life.”
Russell Defreitas, the leader of the group, was arrested in Brooklyn. The other three members of the group—Abdul Kadir, Kareem Ibrahim, and Abdel Nur—were detained in Trinidad and extradited in June 2008. Kadir and Nur have links to Islamic extremists in South America and the Caribbean. Kadir was an imam in Guyana, a former member of the Guyanese Parliament, and mayor of Linden, Guyana. Ibrahim is a Trinidadian citizen and Nur is a Guyanese citizen.
In 2010, Kadir was found guilty on five counts and sentenced to life in prison. In February, both Defreitas and Nur were also found guilty. Defreitas was sentenced to life in prison, while Nur was sentenced to 15 years. The final conspirator, Kareem Ibrahim, was convicted in May 2011 and has been sentenced to life in prison.
24. Hassan Abujihaad—March 2008. Hassan Abujihaad, a former U.S. Navy sailor from Phoenix, Arizona, was convicted of supporting terrorism and disclosing classified information, including the location of Navy ships and their vulnerabilities, to Babar Ahmad and Syed Talha Ahsan, the alleged administrators of Azzam Publication websites (the London organization that provided material support and resources to terrorists). Abujihaad was arrested in March 2007 and pled not guilty to charges of supporting terrorism in April 2007. In May 2008, he was convicted by a jury and sentenced to 10 years in prison. In 2010, his conviction was upheld in a federal court of appeals. Both Babar Ahmad and Syed Talha Ahsan are being held in Britain on anti-terrorism charges and are fighting extradition to the U.S.
25. Christopher Paul—June 2008. Christopher Paul is a U.S. citizen from Columbus, Ohio. He joined al-Qaeda in the 1990s and was involved in conspiracies to target Americans in the United States and overseas. In 1999, he became connected to an Islamic terrorist cell in Germany, where he was involved in a plot to target Americans at foreign vacation resorts. He later returned to Ohio and was subsequently arrested for conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction—specifically, explosive devices—“against targets in Europe and the United States.” Paul pled guilty to the charges and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
26. Bryant Neal Vinas—November 2008. Bryant Neal Vinas is an American citizen of Hispanic descent who converted to Islam in 2004. In 2007, Vinas left home telling his parents he wanted to study Islam and Arabic. He then traveled to Pakistan where he was trained by and joined the Taliban. During his time in Pakistan, Vinas assisted with unsuccessful attacks on American forces and provided al-Qaeda with extensive information regarding the Long Island Rail Road for a potential attack. He was arrested by Pakistani forces and sent back to the United States, where he pleaded guilty and began cooperating with authorities. He is currently in the custody of the U.S. Marshals and is awaiting sentencing.
27. Synagogue Terror Plot—May 2009. On May 20, 2009, the New York Police Department announced the arrest of James Cromitie, David Williams, Onta Williams, and Laguerre Payen for plotting to blow up New York-area Jewish centers and shoot down planes at a nearby Air National Guard Base. The four had attempted to gain access to Stinger missiles and were caught in the act of placing bombs in the buildings and in a car. (The bombs were duds, because undercover agents sold the four defendants fake explosives as part of an ongoing sting operation). All four men were found guilty. In June 2011, James Cromitie, David Williams, and Onta Williams were sentenced to 25 years in prison. In September 2011, Laguerre Payen received the same sentence.
28. Raleigh Jihad Group—July 2009. A group of seven men in North Carolina were arrested on charges of conspiring to support terrorist groups abroad, engage in terror attacks abroad and plotting an attack on the U.S. Marine base at Quantico, Virginia. Their ringleader, Daniel Patrick Boyd, is believed to have a long association with radical groups, dating from his time living in Pakistan. In Pakistan, he is believed to have been an active member of Hezb-e-Islami (Party of Islam). The Raleigh group also raised funds and trained extensively in preparation to wage attacks both at home and abroad.  The men were denied bail and are awaiting trial.
29. Najibullah Zazi—September 2009. Najibullah Zazi, a 24-year-old Afghan, was arrested after purchasing large quantities of chemicals used to make a TATP bomb, the same type of weapon used in the 2005 bombing of the London Underground and the 2001 shoe-bomb plot. Zazi had traveled to Pakistan, where he received instruction in bomb making and attended an al-Qaeda training camp. Zazi allegedly planned to detonate TATP bombs on the New York City subway. It has since been found that the plot was directed by senior al-Qaeda leadership in Pakistan.
Najibullah Zazi’s father, Mohammed Wali Zazi, was also indicted for obstructing justice, witness tampering, and lying to the FBI in attempts to help his son cover up plans for his attack.A cousin of Zazi, Amanullah Zazi, also publicly admitted that he played a role in Zazi’s 2009 plot. Amanullah pled guilty in secret and agreed to become a government witness in federal court in Brooklyn against Najibullah’s father. The father has since been found guilty and sentenced to four and a half years in prison. Najibullah Zazi pled guilty, as the result of a plea bargain, and remains in jail. He is currently awaiting sentencing.
At least three other individuals have since been arrested on allegations of conspiring to carry out the attack with Zazi. One of them, New York religious leader Ahmad Afzali, has pled guilty to charges of lying to federal agents about informing Zazi that he was being investigated by authorities.  As part of a plea deal, Afzali was sentenced to time served and ordered to leave the country within 90 days. A second man, Zarein Ahmedzay has also pled guilty to conspiring to use weapons of mass destruction in the foiled plot and lying to investigators. Adis Medunjanin has pled not guilty to conspiracy to commit murder in a foreign country and to receiving terrorist training. Ahmedzay and Medunjanin are thought to have traveled to Pakistan with Zazi, and to have met with wanted al-Qaeda operative Adnan El Shukrijumah, who has also been charged in the plot. A fourth individual, Abid Nasser, has also been implicated in the plot led by Zazi, as well as other plots in England and Norway. He is currently in the United Kingdom facing extradition to the United States. Also charged in the plot are, Tariq Ur Rehman, and a fifth defendant known as “Ahmad,” “Sohaib,” or “Zahid.” Both El Shukrijumah and Rehman are not in custody.
30. Hosam Maher Husein Smadi —September 2009. Smadi, a 19-year-old Jordanian, was apprehended in an attempt to plant a bomb in a Dallas skyscraper. Originally identified through FBI monitoring of extremist chat rooms, Smadi was arrested and charged after agents posing as terrorist cell members gave Smadi a fake bomb, which he later attempted to detonate. Smadi was found guilty and sentenced to 24 years in prison.
31. Michael Finton —September 2009. Michael Finton, an American citizen, was arrested on September 23, 2009, by undercover FBI agents after attempting to detonate a car bomb filled with what he believed to be close to one ton of explosives outside the Paul Findley Federal Building and Courthouse in downtown Springfield, Illinois. The blast was also intended to destroy the nearby office of Representative Aaron Schock (R–IL). Evidence presented against Finton has shown that he expressed a desire to become a jihadist fighter and was aware that his planned attack would cause civilian injuries. He has been arrested on charges of attempted murder of federal employees and attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction. Finton pled guilty and was sentenced to 28 years in prison.
32. Tarek Mehanna and Ahmad Abousamra—October 2009. Tarek Mehanna, previously indicted for lying to the FBI about the location of terrorist suspect Daniel Maldonado, was arrested on October 21, 2009, on allegations of conspiracy to kill two U.S. politicians, American troops in Iraq, and civilians in local shopping malls, as well as conspiracy to provide material support to a terrorist organization. Mehenna and Ahmad Abousamra, his co-conspirator, were indicted on charges of providing and conspiring to provide material support to terrorists, conspiracy to kill Americans in a foreign country, and conspiracy to provide false information to law enforcement.
The two men are not believed to be associated with any known terrorist organization. Mehanna has pled not guilty to charges held against him and has since been convicted, while Abousamra remains at large in Syria.
33. The Christmas Day Bomber—2009. Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, a 23-year-old Nigerian engineering student living in London, boarded a plane from Nigeria to Amsterdam and then flew from Amsterdam to the U.S. It was on this second flight when he attempted to detonate a bomb hidden in his underwear as the plane began to land. The device ignited but did not detonate, and passengers quickly stopped Abdulmutallab from trying again, leading to his arrest by U.S. authorities upon landing in Detroit. The bomb, containing the explosives PETN and TATP, was similar to the failed device used by Richard Reid in his shoe in 2001.
Media accounts following the plot indicate that Abdulmutallab admits involvement with al-Qaeda in Yemen and has pleaded not guilty to charges including conspiracy to commit an act of terrorism and attempting to use a weapon of mass destruction. In February 2012, Adulmutallab was sentenced to life in prison following his conviction.
34. Raja Lahrasib Khan—March 2010. Chicago taxi driver Raja Lahrasib Khan, a naturalized U.S. citizen from Pakistan, was arrested by the Chicago FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force on two counts of providing material support to a foreign terrorist organization. According to the charges, Khan was affiliated with Ilyas Kashmiri, leader of the al-Qaeda-linked extremist group Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami in Kashmir, and has previously been indicted in the U.S. on terrorism charges.
Khan originally transferred $950 to Pakistan, to be delivered to Kashmiri, and later attempted to send around $1,000 provided to him by an undercover agent to Kashmiri by having his son carry the money to England, where Khan then planned to rendezvous with him and carry the money the rest of the way to Pakistan. His son was stopped by government agents at Chicago’s O’Hare airport before leaving the country. The criminal complaint filed against Khan also alleges that he had discussed plans to bomb an unnamed sports stadium in the United States.
Khan has since pleaded guilty as part of a plea deal recommending a sentence of five to eight years. His sentencing has been scheduled for May 30, 2012.
35. Faisal Shahzad—May 2010. Faisal Shahzad, a naturalized citizen from Pakistan, attempted to detonate explosives in an SUV parked in Times Square. After explosives training in Pakistan, he is said to have received $12,000 from entities affiliated with the terrorist organization Tehrik-e-Taliban to fund the attack. Following the failed bombing attempt, Shahzad attempted to flee the country to Dubai, but was arrested before the flight was able to leave New York’s JFK airport.
Shahzad pled guilty to 10 counts, including conspiracy to commit an act of terrorism and to use a weapon of mass destruction. He was sentenced to life in prison and is being held at the same Colorado maximum-security prison as Richard Reid and Jose Padilla.
36. Paul G. Rockwood, Jr., and Nadia Piroska Maria Rockwood—July 2010. Paul G. Rockwood, Jr., an American citizen, became an adherent to Anwar al-Awlaki’s ideology of violent jihad after converting to Islam. In studying al-Awlaki’s teachings, Rockwood came to believe it was his religious responsibility to seek revenge against anyone who defiled Islam. He created a list of 15 individuals to be targeted for assassination, including several members of the U.S. military. Rockwood is said to have researched explosive techniques and discussed the possibility of killing his targets with a gunshot to the head or through mail bombs. Nadia Piroska Maria Rockwood, Paul’s wife, knowingly transported the list to Anchorage, Alaska, to share with an unnamed individual who apparently shared Rockwood’s ideology. The list then made it into the hands of the FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force in Anchorage.
Paul was charged with making false statements to the FBI in a domestic terrorism charge, while Nadia was charged with making false statements to the FBI in connection to the case against her husband. Paul was sentenced to eight years in prison, while his wife was sentenced to five years probation.
37. Farooque Ahmed—October 2010. Pakistani-American Farooque Ahmed was arrested following an FBI investigation into plots to attack the Washington, D.C., subway. Ahmed is said to have conducted surveillance on the D.C. Metrorail system on multiple occasions, and was in contact with undercover FBI agents whom he believed to be individuals affiliated with al-Qaeda. According to an unsealed affidavit, Ahmed wanted to receive terrorist training overseas and become a martyr. The affidavit also indicates that he sought to specifically target military personnel in his bombing attempt.
Ahmed pled guilty to charges of material support and collecting information for a terrorist attack on a transit facility. He was then immediately sentenced to 23 years in prison.
38. Air Cargo Bomb Plot—October 2010. Two packages shipped from Yemen to Chicago-area synagogues were discovered to contain explosive materials of the same type used by Richard Reid and Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab in previously thwarted bombing attempts. The packages contained printer cartridges filled with the explosive material and were identified with the help of intelligence tips from Saudi Arabian authorities while in transit on cargo planes in the United Kingdom and Dubai. While no arrests have been made, the Yemen-based Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) has claimed responsibility for the failed attack.
39. Mohamed Osman Mohamud—November 2010. Mohamed Osman Mohamud, a 19-year-old Somali-American, was arrested after attempting to detonate a car bomb at a Christmas tree lighting ceremony in Portland, Oregon. The bomb was composed of inert explosives given to him by undercover FBI agents. Mohamud had previously sought to travel overseas to obtain training in violent jihad. Having failed in that attempt, he wanted to commit an attack that would cause mass casualties to individuals and their families. Mohamud has pled not guilty to the charges.
40. Antonio Martinez—December 2010. Antonio Martinez, a 21-year-old American citizen also known as Muhammad Hussain, planned to bomb a military recruiting center in Maryland. The FBI learned of the plot from an unnamed informant. Martinez was arrested after attempting to detonate a fake explosive device supplied by FBI agents. He has been charged with attempted murder of federal officers and employees, as well as attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction. He has pled not guilty and awaits further trial.
41. Khalid Ali-M Aldawsari—February 2011. Khalid Ali-M Aldawsari, a Saudi citizen studying in Lubbock, Texas, was arrested by the FBI after placing an order for the toxic chemical phenol. Both the chemical supplier and the freight shipping company became suspicious of the order, which could be used to make an improvised explosive device (IED), and alerted the FBI and local police. Surveillance of Aldawsari’s e-mail turned up a list of potential “nice targets” including dams, nuclear power plants, military targets, a nightclub, and the Dallas residence of former President George W. Bush. The search also recovered plans to acquire a forged U.S. birth certificate and multiple driver’s licenses. Aldawsari seems to have considered using these documents to obtain rental cars for use in vehicle bombings. He has pled not guilty to charges of attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction and faces up to life in prison.
42. Ahmed Ferhani and Mohamed Mamdouh—May 2011. Ahmed Ferhani of Algeria, and Moroccan-born Mohamed Mamdouh, a U.S. citizen, were arrested by the New York Police Department after attempting to purchase a hand grenade, guns, and ammunition to attack an undetermined Manhattan synagogue. The men planned on disguising themselves as Orthodox Jews in order to sneak into the synagogue. Reports have also cited the Empire State Building as a possible second target. Both men face charges of conspiracy to commit a crime of terrorism and conspiracy to commit a hate crime, as well as criminal possession of a weapon.
43. Yonathan Melaku—June 2011. On June 17, 2011, Yonathan Melaku, an Ethiopian and a naturalized U.S. citizen and former Marine Corp reservist, was arrested at Fort Myer near Arlington National Cemetery, where he was found with a backpack filled with ammonium nitrate, spray paint, and spent ammunition rounds. The discovery led authorities to unravel a series of mysterious events from the fall of 2010, when shots had been fired at night from the street at various military buildings, including the Pentagon, causing over $100,000 in damages. After searching his bag and house, authorities found video of Melaku shooting at the buildings and providing commentary, a series of notebooks written in Arabic with references to terrorism, and a list of equipment needed to make a timed explosive device. He has since pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 25 years in prison.
44. Abu Khalid Abdul-Latif and Walli Mujahidh—June 2011. In a raid on a warehouse in Seattle, the FBI arrested Abu Khalid Abdul-Latif and Walli Mujahidh. The two suspects had arranged to purchase weapons from an anonymous informant in contact with the Seattle Police Department. They were seeking to purchase automatic machine guns and grenades in preparation for an attack on a military recruiting station in Seattle. Since the arrests have been made, authorities have learned that Abdul-Latif, a felon and Muslim convert, had initially planned to attack the Joint Base Lewis–McChord with his friend, Los Angeles resident Mujahidh. The target was later changed to the Seattle Military Entrance Processing Station for undisclosed reasons.
The men have been charged with conspiracy to murder officers and employees of the United States government, conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction, and possession of firearms in furtherance of crimes of violence. Abdul-Latif has also been charged with two counts of illegal possession of firearms and is awaiting further trial. Mujahidh has pled guilty and faces up to 32 years in prison.
45. Emerson Winfield Begolly—August 2011. Begolly, a moderator and supporter for the internationally known Islamic extremist Web forum Ansar al-Mujahideen English Forum (AMEF), was arrested on charges of terrorist actions involving solicitation to commit a crime of violence and distribution of information in relation to explosives, destructive devices, and weapons of mass destruction. Through his profile on AMEF, the Pennsylvania-born man solicited others to engage in violent acts of terrorism against post offices, water plants, military facilities, bridges, train lines, and Jewish schools. Begolly also used the website to post a downloadable 101-page document that contains information on how to create, conduct, and manufacture chemical explosives. The instructional document is loosely linked to al-Qaeda’s former top chemical and biological weapons expert Abu Khabbab al Misri. Begolly pled guilty to counts of soliciting others to engage in acts of terrorism within the U.S., and attempting to use a 9-mm semi-automatic handgun during an assault upon inquiring FBI agents. He is currently awaiting further trial.
46. Rezwan Ferdaus—September 2011. Ferdaus, a self-radicalized 26-year-old U.S. citizen, was arrested for trying to provide material support to terrorist organizations when he gave a modified cell phone to someone he believed to be an al-Qaeda operative. He did so believing the man would use the cell phone to detonate improvised explosive devices against American soldiers. The alleged al-Qaeda operative was an undercover FBI agent. Ferdaus also sought to use small drone aircraft laden with explosives to attack the Pentagon and U.S. Capitol, followed by a ground attack carried out by armed men with automatic rifles. He had already purchased some items, including C4 and AK-47s, toward this goal from an undercover agent. He is being held awaiting trial.
47. Iranian Terror Plot -October 2011. On October 11, 2011, Manssor Arbabsiar, an Iranian-born U.S. citizen, was arrested for plotting to assassinate the Saudi Arabian ambassador to the U.S., as well as bomb the Saudi and Israeli embassies in Washington, D.C. He claims he was working for the Iranian Quds Forces, a special unit of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard. On behalf of the Quds Forces, Arbabsiar is said to have contacted members of a Mexican drug cartel with the goal of hiring them to assassinate the Saudi ambassador. The two parties allegedly agreed on a payment of $1.5 million, with a down payment of $100,000 that Arbabsiar wired to members of the cartel, supposedly from the Iranian government. The plot was uncovered because the supposed members of the cartel he approached were informants for the Drug Enforcmeent Agency. He was arrested at JFK airport in New York, has pleaded not guilty, and is currently awaiting trial. Another man, Gholam Shakuri, is an Iranian citizen who is wanted in connection with the plot; he is believed to be in Iran. This is the first publicly known post-9/11 Islamist-inspired terror plot aimed at the United States specifically linked to state-sponsored terrorism.
48. Jose Pimentel -November 2011. On November 20, 2011, Jose Pimentel, a naturalized U.S. citizen from the Dominican Republic, was arrested on charges of planning to use pipe bombs to attack targets throughout New York City. His proposed targets included police stations, post offices, and U.S. soldiers. He was a homegrown radical inspired by Anwar al-Awlaki. Pimentel also managed his own radical website espousing his beliefs in violent jihad. The plot was uncovered by an informant and Pimentel was arrested by the NYPD. He has pleaded not guilty and awaits trial.
49. Sami Osmakac—January 2012. On January 7, 2012, Sami Osmakac, a naturalized U.S. citizen from the Kosovo region of the former Republic of Yugoslavia, was arrested on charges of planning attacks against night clubs, businesses, and a sheriff’s office. He came to the attention of the authorities when a source alerted them that Osmakac had asked how to locate an al-Qaeda flag. He planned to conduct a multi-pronged attack against his proposed targets with vehicle-born explosives. He also wished to take hostages. He was introduced to an undercover FBI agent who he believed was an arms dealer and procured disabled AK-47s and explosives from him. He was arrested by the FBI’s Tampa office and has since pleaded not guilty.
50. Amine El Khalifi—February 2012. Amine El Khalifi, a Moroccan citizen illegally in the United States, was arrested on charges of plotting to attack the U.S. Capitol. He was arrested as he left his parked car with guns and a bomb. He did not know that the weapons had already been rendered inoperable, as they had been provided to him by FBI agents he believed to be al-Qaeda operatives. Before choosing the Capitol building as a target, El Khalifi had proposed targets including D.C. office buildings, restaurants, and synagogues. He is currently being held in federal custody in Alexandria, Virginia, awaiting trial.
Preventing the Next Terrorist Attack
The death of Osama bin Laden marked an important victory in the long war on terrorism. The war, however, is not won. Terrorists, including those radicalized in the United States, continue to seek to harm the U.S. and its people. As the first anniversary of the death of bin Laden approaches, Congress and the Administration should be mindful of what is needed to continue to combat the threat of terrorism at home and abroad. In order to prevent the next terrorist attack, lawmakers should:
- Preserve existing counterterrorism and intelligence tools, such as the PATRIOT Act. Support for important investigative tools, such as the PATRIOT Act, is essential to maintaining the security of the United States and combating terrorist threats. Key provisions in the act, such as the roving surveillance authority and business records provisions, have proven essential in thwarting numerous terror plots. For instance, the PATRIOT Act’s information-sharing provisions were essential for investigating and prosecuting homegrown terrorists, such as the Lackawanna Six. This case, along with others, demonstrates that national security investigators continue to require the authorities provided by the PATRIOT Act to track leads and dismantle plots before the public is put in danger. Bearing this fact in mind, Congress should not let key provisions of the PATRIOT Act expire, and instead, should make them permanent.
- Plug gaps in procedures for halting terrorist travel. The problem in stopping terrorist travel to the U.S. is not airport screening per se. Turning every airport into another Maginot Line or Fort Knox will fail at some point. Instead, the best way to discourage terrorists is to frustrate the groups or individuals long before they are able to put the American public in danger. One of the advantages of homegrown terrorism is that potential terrorists, lacking any criminal network, and by merits of U.S. citizenship or legal permanent resident status, are able to travel freely between the U.S. and other nations. In order to stop these and other terrorist travelers, the U.S. should improve visa security coordination between the Departments of State and Homeland Security, put more air marshals in the skies and in airports, speed up the deployment of the Secure Flight program, and fully fund cost-effective measures, such as the Federal Flight Deck Officers program. DHS should also step up implementation of REAL ID and expand the Visa Waiver Program, while Congress should seek to end the 100 percent visa interview requirement that requires consular officers to interview all individuals who apply for visas to the United States, rather than being able to focus resources on those individuals who may pose the greatest risk. Efforts should also be made to improve the Terrorist Watchlist, including ensuring that the intelligence community has complete information access in real time, the implementation of “Person-centric” travel histories, and the incorporation of data obtained from abroad by the Immigration and Custom Enforcement’s Visa Security Units at U.S. embassies and consulates. Until the terrorists are rooted out, the free nations under threat from global terrorism have to do a better job of thwarting terrorist travel.
- Improve cooperation between federal, state, and local authorities. Since 9/11, the federal government has worked to improve cooperation among federal, state, and local authorities through the promotion of Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs), fusion centers, and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative (NSI). Today, almost every major law enforcement jurisdiction belongs to a Joint Terrorism Task Force, while only 72 jurisdictions participate in, or have, a fusion or data center. Similarly, while many state and local agencies have embraced their roles in the development of suspicious activity reporting (SAR), far too may have yet to do so. Particularly in the case of homegrown terrorism, the importance of further enhancing these relationships cannot be overlooked. Local cops on the beat know their communities and are best able to notice when something is not right. All too often, however, information sharing continues to mean that state and local authorities are expected to share information with the federal government, while information fails to effectively flow in the opposite direction. This relationship must be improved. Likewise, one of the central failures leading up to the attempted 2009 Christmas Day airplane bombing was the lack of sufficient information sharing between entities across the federal government. Interagency communications between the Departments of State, Justice, and Homeland Security, therefore, must also be improved.
- Create a lawful detainment framework for the incapacitation and lawful interrogation of terrorists. As of August 2011, the United States is holding 171 detainees at Guantanamo Bay. Under the international law of armed conflict, or law of war, and as recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court, the United States has the authority to detain enemies who have engaged in combatant actions, including acts of belligerence, until the end of hostilities to keep them from returning to the battlefield. Military detention, authorized by Congress and properly calibrated to protect national security, will enhance the nation’s ability to prosecute this war. The Commander in Chief should have all tools available to defeat this enemy, including the ability to determine whom to capture, where to detain them, whether to prosecute via military commissions or federal court, and whom to release. Efforts by Congress to unnecessarily restrict the Commander in Chief in these areas are problematic and should be avoided. At the same time, the Administration should continue to use Guantanamo as the default detention facility for high-value captures, including future captures and dangerous high-value detainees currently in custody in Iraq and Afghanistan.
- Enhance mutual trust and partnerships with the Muslim communities throughout the United States. In 2005, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair spoke clearly when he said, “The best defense of the Muslim community in this country is for that leadership to be exercised and for the mainstream Muslim community to take on the extremists within their midst, within our midst.” These words continue to ring true today. In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security’s Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (CRCL) has undertaken efforts to reach out to Muslim communities throughout the U.S. Similarly, the Obama Administration’s 2011 strategy for combating violent extremism (CVE) in the U.S. placed a strong focus on a “community-based approach” to CVE. Members of the Muslim community have also proved integral in thwarting terrorist attacks both through community resistance to radicalization and unsolicited tips to law enforcement in reporting suspicious activity and behavior. Both government outreach efforts and the vigilance of Muslim communities against terrorism have proven vital in protecting the U.S.; however, more must be done to enhance mutual trust and partnerships between government, intelligence, and law enforcement and Muslim communities.
At least 50 publicly known terrorist plots against the United States have been thwarted since 9/11—of these, at least 42 could be considered homegrown terrorist threats. What these plots show is that terrorists, both at home and abroad, continue to seek to harm the United States and its citizens. Ensuring that the U.S. is able to thwart the next terrorist plots requires the continued vigilance of law enforcement, intelligence, and the American people.
Article by James Jay Carafano, Ph.D. , Steven Bucci and Jessica Zuckerman
James Jay Carafano, PhD, is Deputy Director of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies and Director of the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies, a division of the Davis Institute, at The Heritage Foundation. Steve Bucci, PhD, is a Senior Research Fellow for Defense and Homeland Security in the Allison Center for Foreign Policy at the Heritage Foundation. Jessica Zuckerman is a Research Associate in the Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation.
About the author:
Founded in 1973, The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institution—a think tank—whose mission is to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.
For the purposes of this report, the Congressional Research Service’s definition of homegrown terrorism is employed: “‘[H]omegrown’ and ‘domestic’ [terrorism] are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States.” All plots discussed in this report, however, involved targets in the United States. For more information on international terror plots, see David Muhlhausen and Jena Baker McNeill, “Terror Trends: 40 Years’ Data on International and Domestic Terrorism,” Heritage Foundation Special Report No. 93, May 20, 2011, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/05/terror-trends-40-years-data-on-international-and-domestic-terrorism A plot was designated as homegrown if one or more of the actors met the definition above.
Unpublished remarks by Brian Jerkins and Risa Brooks, “Evaluating the Homegrown Terrorist Threat,” CATO Institute, April 13, 2012.
Rick “Ozzie” Nelson and Ben Bodurian, “A Growing Terrorist Threat? Assessing ‘Homegrown’ Extremism in the United States,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, March 2010, http://csis.org/files/publication/100304_Nelson_GrowingTerroristThreat_Web.pdf (accessed April 17, 2012).
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Since 2007, The Heritage Foundation has continuously refined the data provided in this report. In this latest report, several previously unnoted plots have been added. Plots included in previous drafts may also not appear due to new developing information. It is worth noting that there have been three successful terrorist attacks against the United States since 9/11: (1) the shooting at the Little Rock, Arkansas, military recruiting center in 2009; (2) the Los Angeles airport ticket counter shooting in 2002; and (3) the Fort Hood shooting in 2009, during which 16 people were killed.
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“Four Charged with Hatching Prison Terror Plot: California Inmates Allegedly Created Extremist Muslim Gang Behind Bars,” MSNBC, August 31, 2005, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9148467 (accessed May 5, 2011).
Rachanee Srisavasdi, “Man Sentenced for Role in Plot to Kill Jews, Attack Military Bases,” The Orange County Register, August 17, 2009, http://www.ocregister.com/news/samana-168436-months-carney.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
”U.S. Man Sentenced to 30 Years in Plot to Blow Up Pipelines,” International Herald Tribune, November 6, 2007.
Jeremy Grad, “Reynolds Gets 30 Years in Terror Plot,” Times Leader (Wilkes–Barre, PA), November 7, 2007.
“U.S. Man Sentenced to 30 Years,” International Herald Tribune.
Grad, “Reynolds Gets 30 Years in Terror Plot.”
“U.S. Man Sentenced to 30 Years,” International Herald Tribune.
 United States of America v. Mohammad Zaki Amawi, Marwan Othman El-Hindi, and Zand Wassim Mazloum , The United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio, Western Division, February 16, 2006, http://www.justice.gov/opa/documents/indictment_22006.pdf (accessed September 1, 2011).
Grand jury indictment for United States v. Mohammed Zaki Amawi et al., January 19, 2007, http://www.justice.gov/opa/documents/indictment_22006.pdf (accessed May 10, 2011).
Mike Wilkinson and Christina Hall, “3 Charged in Terror Plot; Local Suspects Planned Attacks in Iraq, U.S. Says,” Toledo Blade, February 22, 2006.
News release, “Three Sentenced for Conspiring to Commit Terrorist Acts Against Americans Overseas,” U.S. Department of Justice, October 22, 2009, http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/US_v_Amawi_dojprsent.pdf (accessed May 5, 2011).
“Trial Looms for U.S. Suspect in Alleged Jihad Plot,” Associated Press, May 31, 2009, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,523578,00.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
Bill Rankin, “Atlanta Terrorism Suspect Seeks to Represent Himself,” The Atlanta Journal–Constitution, March 3, 2009, http://www.ajc.com/services/content/metro/atlanta/stories/2009/03/03/terrorism_suspect.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
Bill Rankin, “Ex-Tech Student Found Guilty on Terrorism Charge,” The Atlanta Journal–Constitution, June 10, 2009, http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/stories/2009/06/10/terrorism_trial_tech.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
News release, “Ehsanul Islam Sadequee Receives 17 Years in Prison; Co-Defendant Syed Haris Ahmed Receives 13 Years,” U.S. Department of Justice, December 14, 2009, http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/US_v_HarisAhmed_dojprsentencing.pdf (accessed May 5, 2011).
“Indictment: Suspects Wanted to ‘Kill All the Devils We Can,’” CNN, June 24, 2006, http://www.cnn.com/2006/US/06/23/miami.raids/index.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
Peter Whoriskey, “Man Acquitted in Terror Case Faces Deportation,” The Washington Post, March 2, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/01/AR2008030101566.html (accessed May 10, 2011).
Julienne Gage, “2nd Mistrial in ‘Liberty City 7’ Case,” The Washington Post, April 17, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/16/AR2008041603607.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
“Sears Tower Bomb Plot Leader Narseal Batiste Jailed,” BBC, November 20, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8371671.stm (accessed May 5, 2011).
“FBI Busts ‘Real Deal’ Terror Plot Aimed at NYC–NJ Underground Transit Link,” Fox News, July 7, 2006, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,202518,00.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
Alison Gendar and Bill Hutchinson, “Assem Hammoud, Suspect in Alleged New York Tunnels Plot, Released on Bail in Lebanon,” The Daily News, New York March 17, 2009, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/us_world/2009/03/17/2009-03-17_assem_hammoud_suspect_in_alleged_new_yor.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
“Lebanon: 2-Year Sentence in Plot to Blow Up Hudson River Tunnels,” The New York Times, February 17, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/18/world/middleeast/lebanon-2-year-sentence-in-plot-to-blow-up-hudson-river-tunnels.html (accessed April 12, 2012).
Rachel Martin, “U.S. Uncovers ‘Advanced’ Bomb Plot; U.S. Targeted,” NPR, August 10, 2006, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5632570 (accessed May 5, 2011).
“U.S. Bomb Suspects ‘Radicalised Quickly,’” The Age (Melbourne, Australia), January 25, 2007, http://www.theage.com.au/news/World/UK-bomb-suspects-radicalised-quickly/2007/01/25/1169594404433.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
“3 Accused U.K. Airline ‘Liquid Bomb’ Plotters Found Guilty,” Associated Press, September 8, 2008, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,418643,00.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
Liza Porteus, “Feds Arrest Man They Say Planned to Detonate Grenades in Illinois Shopping Mall,” Fox News, December 9, 2006, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,235518,00.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
“35-Year Sentence for Mall Grenade Plotter,” CBS News, September 30, 2008, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/30/national/main4490504.shtml (accessed May 5, 2011).
“Top 9/11 Suspects to Plead Guilty,” BBC, December 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7770856.stm (accessed May 5, 2011).
“Look in the Mirror,” The Washington Post, December 13, 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/12/12/AR2010121203421.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
Jason Ryan and Huma Khan, “In Reversal, Obama Orders Guantanamo Military Trial for 9/11 Mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed,” ABC News, April 4, 2011, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/911-mastermind-khalid-sheikh-mohammed-military-commission/story?id=13291750 (accessed May 10, 2011).
NewsCore, “Court Date Set for Khalid Sheikh Mohammed,” myFox Houston, April 10, 2012, http://www.myfoxhouston.com/dpps/news/khalid-sheikh-mohammed-court-date-dpgonc-20120410-fc_19068360 (accessed April 17, 2012).
Dale Russakoff and Dan Eggen, “Six Charged in Plot to Attack Fort Dix,” The Washington Post, May 9, 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/08/AR2007050800465.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
News release, “Three Brothers Sentenced to Life Prison Terms for Conspiring to Kill U.S. Soldiers,” April 28, 2009, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2009/April/09-nsd-401.html (accessed May 5, 2011), and “Judge Sentences Two More in Ft. Dix Conspiracy,” Los Angeles Times, April 30, 2009, http://articles.latimes.com/2009/apr/30/nation/na-ftdix30 (accessed May 5, 2011).
Anthony Faiola and Steven Mufson, “N.Y. Airport Target of Plot, Officials Say,” The Washington Post, June 3, 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/02/AR2007060200606.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
Ibid.; “JFK Terror Plot Foiled in Planning Stages,” WNBC (New York), April 12, 2009, and “U.S.: ‘Unthinkable’ Terror Devastation Prevented,” Associated Press, June 3, 2007, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18999503 (accessed May 5, 2011).
News release, “Russell Defreitas Sentenced to Life in Prison for Conspiring to Commit Terrorist Attack at JFK Airport,” U.S. Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of New York, February 17, 2001, http://www.fbi.gov/newyork/press-releases/2011/russell-defreitas-sentenced-to-life-in-prison-for-conspiring-to-commit-terrorist-attack-at-jfk-airport (accessed May 5, 2011).
News release, “Imam from Trinidad Convicted of Conspiracy to Launch Terrorist Attack at JFK Airport: Defendant Plotted to Explode Fuel Tanks and Pipeline at Airport,” U.S. Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of New York, May 26, 2011, http://www.justice.gov/usao/nye/pr/2011/2011may26b.html (accessed September 2, 2011).
Lloyd de Vries, “Ex-Sailor Accused of Supporting Terrorism,” CBS News, March 8, 2007, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/03/08/terror/main2546508.shtml (accessed May 5, 2011); Mark Spencer, “Hassan Abu-Jihaad, Former U.S. Sailor Who Leaked Navy Secrets Sentenced to Ten Years,” Hartford Courant, April 4, 2009; and “Kareem Ibrahim Sentenced to Life in Prison for Terror Plot to Firebomb JFK,” The Huffington Post, January 14, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/14/kareem-ibrahim-sentenced-to-life-for-jfk-terror-plot_n_1206388.html (accessed April 17, 2012).
“NY Appeals Court OKs Ex-Sailor’s Terror Conviction,” CBS New York, December 20, 2010, http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2010/12/20/ny-appeals-court-oks-ex-sailors-terror-conviction (accessed September 2, 2011).
Robert Wielaard, “Court: UK Must Delay Extraditing Britons to US,” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 8, 2010, http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9GQSMO00.htm (accessed May 5, 2011).
News release, “Ohio Man Sentenced to 20 Years for Terrorism Conspiracy to Bomb Targets in Europe and the United States,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, February 26, 2009, http://www.fbi.gov/cincinnati/press-releases/2009/ci022609.htm/ (accessed May 5, 2011).
Michael Powell, “U.S. Recruit Reveals How Qaeda Trains Foreigners,” The New York Times, July 23, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/24/nyregion/24terror.html (accessed April 17, 2012).
Sebastian Rotella and Josh Meyer, “U.S.-Born Militant Who Fought for Al Qaeda Is in Custody,” Los Angeles Times, July 23, 2009, http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jul/23/nation/na-american-jihad23 (accessed April 17, 2012).
“Al-Qaida Fighter Possible Witness at NYC Trial,” NPR, April 13, 2012, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=150573613 (accessed April 13, 2012).
Jonathan Dienst, “FBI, NYPD Arrest 4 in Alleged Plot to Bomb NY Synagogues,” NBC, May 21, 2009, http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/FBI-Bust-Plot-Foiled.html (accessed May 5, 2011).
Robert Gearty, “Judge Gives Men Convicted in Bronx Synagogue Bomb Plot 25 Years in Prison but Lambasts Government,” The Daily News, June 29, 2011, http://articles.nydailynews.com/2011-06-29/news/29737288_1_james-cromitie-bronx-synagogues-onta-williams (accessed September 2, 2011).
“Former Rockland Man Laguerre Payne Gets 25 Years in Newburgh Four Terror Case,” LoHud.com, September 8, 2011, http://www.lohud.com/article/20110908/NEWS01/109080352/Former-Rockland-man-Laguerre-Payen-gets-25-years-Newburgh-Four-terror-case (accessed April 17, 2012).
Sarah Ovaska, “North Carolina Terror Suspects Allegedly Targeting Quantico Marine Base,” Charlotte Observer, September 25, 2009, http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2009/09/25/76069/north-carolina-terror-suspects.html (accessed April 13, 2012).
Mike Baker, “7 NC Men Charged as International ‘Jihad’ Group,” Associated Press, July 28, 2009, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/8629994 (accessed April 17, 2012).
Mike Ahlers, “No Bail for ‘Jihad’ Suspects Despite Judge’s Skepticism,” CNN, August 5, 2009, http://articles.cnn.com/2009-08-05/justice/nc.terror.suspects_1_suspects-violent-jihad-flight?_s=PM:CRIME (accessed April 17, 2012), and “Seventh Terrorism Suspect Denied Bond,” Associated Press, August 10, 2009, http://www.wral.com/news/local/story/5762453/ (accessed April 17, 2012).
 United States of America Against Najibullah Zazi, “Memorandum of Law in Support of the Government’s Motion for a Permanent Order of Detention,” United States District Court, Eastern District of New York, September 24, 2009, http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/FeaturedDocs/US_v_NajibullahZazi_detentionmemo.pdf (accessed May 5, 2011).
News release, “Charges Unsealed Against Five Alleged Members of Al-Qaeda Plot to Attack the United States and United Kingdom,” U.S. Department of Justice, July 7, 2010, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2010/July/10-nsd-781.html (accessed September 2, 2011).
“Additional Charges for Father in NYC Subway Plot,” CBS News, November 30, 2010, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/11/30/national/main7103523.shtml (accessed May 5, 2011).
“Cousin of Terrorist Admits Role in NYC Subway plot,” USA Today, July 19, 2011, http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2011-07-18-nyc-terror-plot_n.htm (accessed September 2, 2011).
Jordana Ossad, “Father of NYC Bomb Plotter Found Guilty of Misleading FBI,” CNN Justice, July 22, 2011, http://articles.cnn.com/2011-07-22/justice/new.york.terror.father_1_mohammed-wali-zazi-najibullah-zazi-naqib-jaji?_s=PM:CRIME (accessed September 2, 2011), and Mosi Secret, “Prison for Father Who Lied About Terror Plot,” The New York Times, February 10, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/11/nyregion/mohammed-wali-zazi-sentenced-for-lying-about-subway-bomb-plot.html?_r=1 (accessed April 17, 2012).
Adam Goldman and Tom Hays, “Police: NYC Terror Plotter Zazi Planned with at Least 2 Bombers to Kill Rush-Hour Commuters,” The Chicago Tribune, February 23, 2010.
William K. Rashbaum, “Uncle Who Vouched for Terror Suspect Arrested,” The New York Times, January 27, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/28/nyregion/28zazi.html (accessed May 6, 2011), and Amir Efrati, “Imam Pleads Guilty in New York Terror Case,” The Wall Street Journal, March 4, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704187204575101981933707478.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLTopStories (accessed May 6, 2011).
Colleen Long, “Imam Booted Out of U.S.: ‘God Bless America,’” MSNBC, July 6, 2010, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38101445/ns/us_news-security/ (accessed May 6, 2011).
“NYC Subway Terror Suspect Pleads Guilty,” Fox News, April 23, 2010, http://www.foxnews.com/us/2010/04/23/nyc-terror-suspect-plead-guilty (accessed May 6, 2011), and William K. Rashbaum, “Queens Man Is Accused of Getting Qaeda Training,” The New York Times, January 9, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/nyregion/10plot.html (accessed May 6, 2011).
Adam Goldman and Matt Apuzzo, “U.S. Officials: Al-Qaida Agent Tied to N.Y. Plot,” MSNBC, June 30, 2010, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38024998/ (accessed May 6, 2011).
Andrew Lebovich, “The LWOT: Sweden Looks for Accomplices in Suicide Bombing; Abdulmutallab Hit with More Charges,” Foreign Policy, December 17, 2010, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/12/17/the_lwot_sweden_looks_for_accomplices_in_suicide_bombing_abdulmutallab_hit_with_ (accessed May 6, 2011).
“5 Charged as al Qaeda Plotters in US and UK,” CNN, June 7, 2010, http://articles.cnn.com/2010-07-07/justice/us.al.qaeda.indictments_1_tariq-ur-rehman-adis-medunjanin-zarein-ahmedzay?_s=PM:CRIME (accessed September 2, 2011).
“Jordanian Accused in Dallas Bomb Plot Goes to Court,” CNN, September 25, 2009, http://www.cnn.com/2009/CRIME/09/25/texas.terror.arrest/index.html (accessed May 6, 2011).
“Jordanian Man Sentenced to 24 Years in Undercover Bomb Plot,” CNN, October 19, 2010, http://articles.cnn.com/2010-10-19/justice/texas.bomb.plot.sentencing_1_truck-bomb-jordanian-man-attorney-general-david-kris?_s=PM:CRIME (accessed May 6, 2011).
Christopher Wills, “Michael Finton Pleads Guilty in Springfield Bomb Plot,” The Huffington Post, May 9, 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/10/michael-finton-pleads-gui_n_859922.html (accessed September 2, 2011).
Abby Goodnough and Liz Robbins, “Mass. Man Arrested in Terrorism Case,” The New York Times, October 21, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/22/us/22terror.html (accessed May 10, 2011).
Denise Lavoie, “Boston Terror Arrest: Tarek Mehanna Arrested for Planning Attacks on Shopping Malls,” The Huffington Post, October 21, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/10/21/boston-terror-arrest-sudb_n_328428.html (accessed May 6, 2011).
Denise Lavoie, “Accused Terror Suspect Pleads Not Guilty: Man is Accused of Conspiring to Help al-Qaeda,” MSNBC, July 20, 2010, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38333130/ns/us_news-security/ (accessed May 6, 2011), and Abby Goodnough, “U.S. Citizen Is Convicted in Plot to Support Al Qaeda,” The New York Times, December 20, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/21/us/us-citizen-is-convicted-in-plot-to-aid-al-qaeda.html?_r=1 (accessed April 17, 2012).
“Christmas Day ‘Bomber’ Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab Charged,” The Sunday Times, January 7, 2010, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article6978736.ece (accessed May 10, 2011).
Helen Kennedy, “Underwear Bomber Gets Life in Prison,” The Daily News, New York, February 16, 2012, http://articles.nydailynews.com/2012-02-16/news/31069205_1_underwear-bomber-umar-farouk-abdulmutallab-radical-cleric-anwar-al-awlaki (accessed April 17, 2012).
News release, “Chicago Man Charged with Providing Material Support to al Qaeda by Attempting to Send Funds Overseas,” U.S. Attorney, Northern District of Illinois, March 26, 2010, http://www.justice.gov/usao/iln/pr/chicago/2010/pr0326_01.pdf (accessed May 6, 2011).
Michael Tarm, “Raja Lahrasib Khan Guilty Plea: Deal Reached in Chicago Terror Case,” The Huffington Post, February 16, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/06/raja-lahrasib-khan-guilty_n_1257816.html (accessed April 17, 2012).
News release, “Faisal Shahzad Indicted for Attempted Car Bombing in Times Square,” U.S. Department of Justice, June 17, 2010, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2010/June/10-ag-713.html (accessed May 6, 2011).
Jerry Markon, “Long Term for Failed Times Square Bomber,” The Washington Post, October 6, 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/05/AR2010100505683.html (accessed May 6, 2011).
“Alaska Man Pleads Guilty to Making False Statements in Domestic Terrorism Investigation,” U.S. Department of Justice, July 21, 2010, http://www.justice.gov/usao/ak/press/2010/July/Rockwood_Paul_Nadia_07-21-10.pdf (accessed May 6, 2011), and Carolyn Kuckertz, “Alaskan Builds Terror Hit List; Pleads Guilty,” KTVA, July 21, 2010.
News release, “Virginia Man Arrested for Plotting Attacks on D.C.-area Metro Stations with People He Believed to Be Al-Qaeda Members,” U.S. Department of Justice, October 27, 2010, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2010/October/10-nsd-1213.html (accessed May 6, 2011).
U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Alexandria Division, “Affidavit in Support of Application for Search Warrant,” October 26, 2010, http://www.scribd.com/doc/40331428/Farooque-Ahmed-Search-Warrant-Affidavit (accessed May 6, 2011).
Carol Cratty and Jim Barnett, “Guilty Plea Entered in Thwarted Metro Station Bomb Plot,” CNN, April 11, 2011, http://articles.cnn.com/2011-04-11/justice/virginia.bomb.plot_1_farooque-ahmed-metro-stations-qaeda?_s=PM:CRIME (accessed September 2, 2011).
“Cargo Bomb Plot: What is the Explosive PETN?” BBC, November 1, 2010, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-11664412 (accessed May 6, 2011).
Jayshree Bajoria, “The Debate Over Airport Security,” Council on Foreign Relations, December 28, 2010, http://www.cfr.org/publication/23673/debate_over_airport_security.html (accessed May 6, 2011), and Mark Mazetti, Robert F. Worth, and Eric Lipton, “Bomb Plot Shows Key Role Played in Intelligence,” The New York Times, October 31, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/01/world/01terror.html (accessed May 6, 2011).
U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon, “Arrest Warrant: United States of America v. Mohamed Osman Mohamud,” November 26, 2010, http://www.justice.gov/usao/or/Indictments/11262010_Complaint.pdf (accessed May 6, 2011).
Dan Cook, “Somali-Born Teen Pleads Not Guilty in U.S. Bomb Case,” Reuters, November 30, 2010, http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6AS5PU20101130 (accessed May 6, 2011).
Press release, “Maryland Man Indicted In Plot To Attack Armed Forces Recruiting Center,” U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Maryland, December 21, 2010, http://www.justice.gov/usao/md/Public-Affairs/press_releases/press08/MarylandManIndictedinPlottoAttackArmedForcesRecruitingCenter.html (accessed May 6, 2011), and Maria Glod, “Baltimore Man Accused of Bomb Plot Is Indicted by Jury,” The Washington Post, December 22, 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/12/21/AR2010122105946.html (accessed May 6, 2011).
“U.S. Man Pleads Not Guilty in Maryland Car Bomb Plot,” Reuters, January 8, 2011, http://in.reuters.com/article/2011/01/07/idINIndia-54012820110107 (accessed May 6, 2011).
Betsy Blaney, “Saudi Man Pleads Not Guilty to Bomb Plot in Texas,” MSNBC, March 28, 2011, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/42308507/ns/us_news-security/ (accessed September 2, 2011).
Roco Parascandola, Alison Gendar, and Bill Hutchinson, “NYPD Arrests Two Queens Terror Suspects, Charged with Plot to Hit NYC Synagogues with Grenades,” The Daily News, New York, May 13, 2011, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/ny_crime/2011/05/12/2011-05-12_nypd_arrests_two_queens_terror_suspects_charged_with_plot_to_hit_nyc_synagogues_.html (accessed May 16, 2011).
“2 Men Busted in New York City Terror Plot,” MYFOXNY, May 13, 2011, http://www.myfoxny.com/dpp/news/terror-plot-arrests-20110512 (accessed May 16, 2011).
Parascandola et al., “NYPD Arrests Two Queens Terror Suspects, Charged with Plot to Hit NYC Synagogues with Grenades.”
Josh White, “Yonathan Melaku Admits Shooting at Pentagon, Military Buildings,” The Washington Post, January 26, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/crime-scene/post/plea-agreement-hearing-for-alleged-pentagon-shooter/2012/01/25/gIQAYduHRQ_blog.html (accessed April 17, 2012).
News release, “Two Men Charged in Plot to Attack Seattle Military Processing Center,” FBI Seattle Division, June 23, 2011, http://www.fbi.gov/seattle/press-releases/2011/two-men-charged-in-plot-to-attack-seattle-military-processing-center (accessed September 2, 2011).
“Man Pleads Guilty in Seattle Terror Plot,” Q13 Fox News Online, December 8, 2011, http://www.q13fox.com/news/kcpq-walli-mujahidh-seattle-terror-plot-20111208,0,1742022.story (accessed April 13, 2012).
 United States of America v. Emerson Winfield Begolly , U.S. District Court of the Eastern District of Virginia, July 14, 2011, http://www.lawfareblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Begolly-Indictment.pdf (accessed September 2, 2011).
Milton J. Valencia and Brian R. Ballou,“ Rezwan Ferdaus Indicted for Alleged Plot to Attack Capitol, Pentagon,” The Boston Globe, September 29, 2011, http://www.boston.com/Boston/metrodesk/2011/09/alleged-terror-plotter-indicted-federal-grand-jury/OevOhHc4o1VwcQABMplHIN/index.html (accessed April 17, 2012).
James Jay Carafano, Matt Mayer, and Jessica Zuckerman, “Forty-First Terror Plot Foiled: Homegrown Threat Thwarted by Local Law Enforcement and Intelligence,” Heritage Foundation WebMemo No. 3376, September 29, 2011, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/09/forty-first-terror-plot-foiled-homegrown-threat-thwarted-by-local-law-enforcement-and-intelligence.
Lee Hammel, “Mehanna Gets 17 Years in Terrorism Case,” Worcester Telegram & Gazette, April 12, 2012, http://www.telegram.com/article/20120412/NEWS/120419817/1116 (accessed April 17, 2012).
James Jay Carafano, “Forty-Second Plot Highlights State-Sponsored Terrorism Threat,” Heritage Foundation WebMemo No. 3392, October 12, 2011, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/10/forty-second-plot-highlights-state-sponsored-terrorism-threat.
John Rudolf, “Manssor Arbabsiar, Charged in D.C. Assassination Plot, to Plead Not Guilty,” The Huffington Post, October 11, 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/11/manssor-arbabsiar-iran-assassination-plot-plea_n_1006013.html (accessed April 17, 2012).
Damien McElroy, “Iran Terror Plot: Agent May Have Already Fled to Iran,” The Telegraph, October 13, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/8823517/Iran-terror-plot-agent-may-have-already-fled-to-Iran.html (accessed April 17, 2012).
James Jay Carafano, “Foiling 43rd Terror Plot Test for Administration’s Priorities,” Heritage Foundation WebMemo No. 3415, November 20, 2011, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/11/foiling-43rd-terror-plot-test-for-administrations-priorities, and Joseph Goldstein and William Rashbaum, “City Bomb Plot Suspect Is Called Fan of Qaeda Cleric,” The New York Times, November 20, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/21/nyregion/jose-pimentel-is-charged-in-new-york-city-bomb-plot.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all (accessed April 13, 2012).
“New York Terrorism Suspect Jose Pimentel Pleads Not Guilty,” The Guardian, March 13, 2012, at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/mar/13/new-york-terrorism (accessed April 17, 2012).
Jessica Zuckerman, “Forty-Fourth Terrorist Plot Against the U.S. Marks Need for Continued Vigilance,” Heritage Foundation WebMemo No. 3446, January 9, 2012, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/01/44th-terrorism-plot-terror-attack-marks-need-for-continued-vigilance.
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